The Kanawha Coalfield has been blessed with the navigable Kanwaha River, enabling economical shipment of coal. Pictured here is the Chelyan Dock. (Apr. 2006 image by author)

Abandoned railroad cabin along the former C&O mainline in the Kanawha Valley. (Apr. 2007 image by author)

1938 photograph taken at Longacre, WV. In the lower right of the picture is a New York Central Railroad car next to the beehive coke ovens. Behind this is the tipple, with a conveyor crossing over Route 60 and going up to the head house. In the background are company houses. This coal mine and coke works was adjacent to the town of Smithers, WV. (Sep. 1938 image by Marion Post Wolcott, Library of Congress)

The tipple from the Catherine mine near Muddelty, Nicholas County, was one of the last wooden tipples remaining in West Virginia. The raw coal feed conveyor has been removed from the tipple. For more information about this tipple see this page about the tipple. (Sep. 2005 image by author)

The train yard and tipple at the end of the old Winifrede Railroad, a historic independent short line railroad now used by Kanawha Eagle Coal, LLC. (Apr. 2006 image by author)

These coal cars sitting in Winifrede Hollow still bore the label "WNRR" - Winifred Railroad. The creek that drains the hollow is actually Fields Creek, but Winifrede was the coal camp that was located there. (Sep. 2001 image by author)

Gauley Mountain Coal Company's town named Jodie, WV, representing the Gauley River district of the Kanawha Field. (Sep. 2004 image by author)

These silos, and part of the aerial tram and barge loader, are all that remains of Semet Solvay's once large mine at Harewood, WV. (Sep. 2004 image by author)

The Campbells Creek Coal Company store at Dana, WV still existed when this picture was snapped from the Turnpike bridge over the river in 1991, but has since been demolished. US Route 60 is in the background. (1991 image by Norse Angus, courtesy HABS/HAER)

The coal dock pictured here (Quincy Dock), has a huge stockpile of coal to load into the waiting barges. The coal docks along this river include Shrewsbury Dock, Cheylan Dock, Quincy Dock, Winifrede Dock, Marmet Dock, and Amherst Dock, among others. (Apr. 2006 image by author)

This trestle at Deepwater, Fayette County, still says "Virginian," although the coal hauling railroad was absorbed into the N&W in 1959. (Nov. 2001 image by author)

Boomer, WV coal camp on the bank of the Kanawha River. Not shown in the picture is St. Anthony Catholic Church. Usually where you find a parish named after St. Anthony it often means you are in an Italian-American neighborhood. Boomer Coal and Coke Company recruited many Italian immigrants to work in their mines. It wasn't that long ago that Boomer-Harewood-Smithers-Montgomery was a Little Italy of sorts - or at least an Appalachian version of a Little Italy. Boomer Coal and Coke Co. started mining in Boomer in 1897, though these company houses probably date from a later time. (Mar. 2008 image by Fred Wolfe)

Ruins of the coal camp that was at Vanetta, W.Va.,near Gauley Bridge. The Lynchburg Colliery Co. opened the Vanetta mine in 1904, and the coal was marketed as "Midway Coal." There were no roads to Vanetta, or nearby Gamoca and Wyndal, only the New York Central Railroad and swinging bridges across the Gauley River, and hardly anything remains today. The mines closed in 1927. (Apr. 2015 image by author)

Portal near Swiss, W.Va. from an old punch mine. A punch mine, also called a country bank mine, was a small, independent mine which an individual or small group of miners would operate, ususally on a seasonal basis. (July 2009 WVDEP AML Program image)

There was a district of the Kanawha Coalfield in which the southern extent of the Pittsburgh and Freeport seams occur. Coal industry author Phil Conley included this area in Clay County, northern Kanawha County, and along the Kanawha River in Putnam and southern Mason Counties, with the Kanawha Coalfield, but I am almost tempted to group it with the Pomery Coalfield. Let's just call it the Northern Kanawha Coalfield. Queen Shoals Coal Co. operated at Queen Shoals on the Kanawha-Clay County line. There were also coal mines at Raymond City (Marmet Coal Co.) and Energetic (now Bancroft) (Energetic Coal Company) in this area.

This coal camp - Bream, WV - was located on the bank of the Elk River, a few miles north of Downtown Charleston. (1921 image by Lewis Hine, National Child Labor Committee Collection, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs)

Putnam County coal company town named Black Betsy, WV. The Black Betsy Coal and Mining company opened the coal mine here in 1902. (Sep. 2004 image by author)

This was the Black Betsy company store. This is a very similar design to the company store that used to exist at Glen Jean, WV, and still exists at Whipple, WV (Image by others)

Plymouth Coal & Mining Co. operated built this coal camp to support the mines they operated in Putnam County from 1901 until 1924. Their mines were named California, Manilla, and Plymouth. When this photo was taken in 1973 Plymouth still existed. But when I went in 2004 to look at the old coal town it had vanished - replaced by a grassy field along the Kanawha River with a few latter day ghostly industrial support structures. (Aug. 1973 image by Harry Schaefer, courtesy of the National Archives)

Well, this is not really an interesting photo. I took it from the passenger seat of a car on Route 35. It is of an old silo along the Kanwaha River from the Putnam Mine that was owned by Union Carbide Corporation. The mine was actually in Mason County, not Putnam County, but they named it the Putnam Mine. It was in the Pittsburgh coal seam, and only operated from 1968 until 1971. (Nov. 2015 image by author)

This is Widen, WV, in Clay County, site of much UMWA warfare, where the mines were owned by the Elk River Coal and Lumber Company before being sold to the Clinchfield Coal Company, a subsidiary of Pittston Coal Company. (Aug. 2003 image by author)

Here are some of the board and batten coal camp houses in Widen. The Clinchfield Coal Company closed the Widen mines in 1963. (Aug. 2003 image by author)

Old coal mining equipment near Bickmore, Clay County, W.Va. remaining from a Five Block coal seam mine of Lemonye Coal Co. (and later J.C. Legg Co.). (Jan. 2012 WVDEP AML Program image)

Coal refuse pile (slate dump) at the Lemonye Coal co. site near Bickmore. (Jan. 2012 WVDEP AML Program image)



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